What is Batrachotoxin?
Buy Batrachotoxin Online is an important research tool in pharmacology because of its action of holding voltage-gated sodium channels open as well as its specific effects at other ligand-binding sites. It was commonly used in ion channel and ligand research.
Batrachotoxin has no current clinical uses for two primary reasons. First, batrachotoxin is highly toxic and dangerous to use for medical purposes. Synthetic forms with altered properties would have to be developed for clinical trials. Second, there are no commercially available sources of batrachotoxins or commercially viable synthetic pathways. Most available stocks of batrachotoxin were collected from wild-caught Phyllobates frogs by John Daly many years ago. Work in relevant regions of Colombia is currently difficult or impossible, so these stocks cannot be replenished. No commercially viable sources of batrachotoxin are known from New Guinea, but additional research on the ultimate source of batrachotoxins may elucidate new sources.
The neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX) is a member of a family of steroidal alkaloids called batrachotoxins. The batrachotoxin family includes (among other chemicals) batrachotoxin, homobatrachotoxin, batrachotoxinin A, and pseudobatrachotoxin (unstable, converts to batrachotoxinin A on standing) (7). These toxins were first discovered in poison dart frogs of the genus Phyllobates (8); the name given to this group of chemicals was derived from the greek word for frog, “batrachos” (9). Batrachotoxin, the (20-alpha)-2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3-carboxylate of batrachotoxinin-A, can be assayed using a modified Ehrlich reagent (detection limit less than 50 ng) (7); Ehrlich reagent is an acid solution of p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde (10). The structure of BTX includes a steroid skeleton and an oxazapane ring (13), which are indicated on the structure below.
By weight, batrachotoxin is one of the most potent natural toxins known (9) because it binds to and irreversibly opens voltage-gated sodium channels (9,15); the proper function of these sodium channels is required for the transmission of electrical signals through nerve and muscle cells (2). The activity of BTX depends on temperature, reaching its maximum at 37 degrees Celsius (4). The following list gives some of the properties of this potent toxin.